The Ball Poem by John Berryman | CBSE | Class – X | SA Type and LA Type Questions | Prepared by Sarbadaman Gop


1. Why does the poet say, “| would not intrude on
him”? Why doesn’t he offer him money to buy
another ball?[CBSE 2020]
Ans :The poet says,” I would not intrude on him” because he does not want to interfere in the natural process of learning. He wants the boy to learn the meaning of loss on his own.
🔹He also doesn’t offer him money to buy another ball because that would be inutile . He wants the boy to learn the lesson of responsibility and accept that losses are a part of life.

2. “…… staring down
All his young days into the harbour where His
ball went….”

Do you think the boy has had the ball for a long
time? Is it linked to the memories of days when
he played with it?
Ans. Yes, the boy has had the ball for a long time. It is linked to the memories of days when the boy played with it.
🔹Yes, it appears that the boy has had the ball for a long time. When it bounced and fell into the water, all his childhood memories of wonderful days flashed in front of his eyes. He realised that those moments would never come back, just as the ball. He felt that he can buy new balls a dime a dozen and those would create new vista of memories or moments for him, but those that are lost with the ball into the water would never ever return.

3. What does “in the world of possessions” mean?
Ans. The phrase“in the world of possessions”means that in this living world everyone is conscious of their materialistic possession. Modern world coaxes us into the path of materialism and encourages a sense of possession and belongingness. Every one is in the race of gaining more and more. In the poem, the poet indicates that losing of the ball by the boy may be a paltry thing , but this would give him a realization of loss and the experience of losing memories associated with it.

4. Do you think the boy has lost anything earlier? Pick out the Words that suggest the answer.
Ans : No, it seems that the boy has not lost anything earlier. The line from the poem i.e. ‘He senses first responsibility in a world of possessions’ suggests that the boy hasn’t lost anything previously.

5.What does the poet say the boy is learning from the loss of the ball? Try to explain this in your own words.

Ans : The poet tries to convey that the boy has gained the abilities to cope up with the loss of his ball. The experience of grief and melancholy in this world full of possession makes him learn that there are several valuable things in life that are lost and cannot be brought back. He is sensing his ‘first sense of responsibility’ as he has lost the ball. The boy learns to stand up and leave the loss behind as he moves ahead in his life and understands the true meaning and significance of loss.

6. Write the central idea of the poem.
Or, Write the sum and substance of the poem “The Ball Poem”. [CBSE2016]
Or, What does John Berryman want to convey through his poem? [CBSE2011]

Ans: The poet John Berryman in this poem describes the grief of a boy over the loss of his ball. With that loss he senses his first responsibility in a materialistic world. The poet suggests that the people whom we love and our materialistic possessions will not stay with us forever. One has to understand the nature of
loss and learn to cope up with the The child has to learn that loss is a part of everyday life and still life goes on.

7. “Money is external”. What does the poet mean by this expression?(CBSE2014) (SA and LA Type Question)

Ans : By the expression ‘money is external’ the poet signifies that money can not always bring happiness in one’s life. The poet wants the boy to understand about his responsibility and that the loss is immaterial.Money can buy our materialistic needs like wealth, luxury,and comfort but it can never buy human emotions like love, childhood,and the memories associated with our losses. Here the loss of the ball by the boy can be averted as he can buy another ball but the nostalgia associated with the ball can not be bought back by money. Hence money is external as Benjamin Franklin rightly says :
“Money has never made man happy, nor will it, there is nothing in its nature to produce happiness. The more of it one has the more one wants.”

8. A popular quote states: ‘Responsibility is
self-taught’. How does the poem address this

Ans : The quote ‘Responsibility is self-taught is central to the poem. The poet addresses this thought by becoming an observer to the situation of the boy. He could have gone to the boy and offered him a new ball.But he wanted the boy to learn for himself that his irresponsibility cost him the ball.After losing the ball the boy will be more responsible and vigilant about his belongings to avoid losing something in future.

9. Suggest a suitable by-line for ‘The Ball Poem’
with a reason for your choice.

Ans :As the given poem talks about the understanding of responsibility and the need of moving ahead, the by line for the poem will be :
Understanding Responsibility and Moving Ahead.

More Bylines : 1.“Life is a Process of Give and t.. Take”
2. The Acceptance of Responsibility Rewards Oneself with Greatness.

By-line/ Byline : Cambridge dictionary defines that byline is ” a line at the top of a newspaper or magazine article giving the writer’s name”.

Here a byline should be understood as a short phrase or sentence that describes the theme of the poem.

10. ‘He senses first responsibility’ – What responsibility is referred to here?
Ans:The responsibility referred to here is
how to stand up or bear the loss in this world of possession through self-understanding and trying to console oneself on his own as the boy who lost his ball was trying to do.

11.Does the lost ball stand for the metaphor of the boy’s lost childhood? How?
Ans. The boy has lost his ball into the harbour. It will not be found back again. However, through the metaphor of the lost ball, the poet wants to signify a bigger loss i.e.the loss of his childhood days .Like the lost ball, the childhood days which he cherishes still now,have been lost forever.This makes the loss unconsolable.

12.What is the general rule of this ‘world of possessions’? Why is money
Ans. Getting and losing is a natural cycle.Many more boys before him bought and lost their balls. This process will go on forever. However, no amount of money can buy back the same ball that has been lost forever. Money is external and has its
own limitations. Wealth can’t compensate such emotional losses such as the loss of one’s childhood days.

13.How is the boy learning the ‘epistemology of loss’ from the loss of his ball? What he has to learn?
Ans. The boy has to understand the true nature of the loss or what it means to lose something. Gain and loss are the two sides of the same coin.The boy has to learn how to move forward irrespective of the losses like the loss of the ball he has suffered in the past.

Epistemology : The branch of philosophy that examines the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity.

14. Why does the poet say, “Balls will be lost always”?

Ans: Here, balls are the symbol of man’s
possessions. We love our things. Some things are dearer to us than the others. But nothing is
permanent in life. We may lose our dear things. Then we suffer from a sense of loss. This is experienced by everyone in life.That is why, the poet says, “Balls will be lost always”.

LA Type Question :

15 .Should the boy be allowed to grieve for his ball? If his loss is irreparable or irretrievable, then how should one handle it? What lessons can be learnt?

Ans : Yes, the boy should be allowed to grieve for his ball, as he had that ball for a long time. Numerous old memories are associated with it since his childhood. Moreover, when a person is trying to come over his grief on his own, then one should not intrude or disturb him as it may break his chain of thoughts and may annoy him. One should have self-consolation,and self -understanding in order to bear the loss. Self-realisation and understanding are more effective and lasting than when it is done by an external force or agency or a person.

16. Why is it important for everyone to experience loss and to stand up after it?
Ans :

It is significant to experience loss and to stand up after it in order to be strong and to move forward in the race of life. One needs to be strong enough to deal with loss and any kind of hardships.Staying strong and bold is the only way to
survive.Moreover, one needs to learn to
accept and let go and not cling to something that
they can never have. One should understand that
the past is gone and it will never come back.This helps us in breaking all the boundaries into
freedom.The poem teaches us a philosophy of life through the loss of ball i.e. ” Loss is a universal truth in our life.” We have to lose something at one point of time. Nothing is eternal. Everything is subject to death and decay. The struggles of life will develop your inner strengths. Going through the difficult phases of life and deciding not to surrender oneself is the real strength one needs to find. Through the loss of ball, the boy learns real knowledge of the world. If he is able to bear the loss,he will be able to face the difficulties of life gallantly .The boy must know how to stand up after a loss. It is very essential for every human being to be able to move on or stand up after being knocked down. Here,the ball signifies losing something valuable that can not be bought or replaced .It will remind the boy to protect and preserve his possessions in future.The poet wants us to understand that loss is inevitable and everyone must learn to cope up with the loss with forbearance and fortitude.

17. Why does the poet not offer money to the boy to buy another ball?
Ans: The boy in the ‘The Ball Poem’ for the first time in his life,experiences the grief of losing a much loved possession, i.e.his ball.He does not want to intrude the boy as he wants him to feel what it is like to lose something : ” Now he senses first responsibility/ In a world of possessions.”
The poet wants him to be able to cope with his loss.He does not offer him ‘money’ to buy another ball because he wants the boy to understand that money cannot buy the memory or happiness attached with the ball. Numerous old memories are connected with it since his childhood. Moreover, when a person is trying to come over his grief on his own, then one should not intrude him as it may break his chain of thoughts and may annoy him. One should have self-consolation,and self -understanding in order to bear the loss. Self-realisation and understanding are more effective and lasting than when it is done by an external force or agency or a person.

He wants him to be responsible enough to let go of things and move on in life. Once something is lost, it may never be restored. This realisation will help him have mature outlook towards life.

Daybreak by Longfellow, XI

1.Justify the title of the Poem “Daybreak”
Ans. In the concluding part of “The Bells of San Blas”, Longfellow writes –

“Out of the Shadows of night
The world rolls into light ;
It is daybreak everywhere.”
This prophetic vision of the daybreak is the main theme of the poem”Daybreak”.Daybreak means dawn when the night with its darkness gradually dwindles and the slanting ray of the sun from the eastern sky started to appear making everything glorious.The sea-wind, the harbinger of dawn, gives the impassioned call of awakening to each animate and inanimate objects of Nature. Rising up from the core of sea, it asked the mists to give him a passage to blow,the mariners to sail on, the forest to flutter its banners of foliage, the wood-bird to open its folded wings and sing, the chanticleer to give the clarion call, to cornfields to salute the the coming morn, the church bell to proclaim the hour of dawn and the dead buried in the churchyard to lie quietly. As a herald the sea-wind wakes up the living world to action to embrace the vivacity and newness of the morning sunshine deserting all kinds of drowsiness, nightlong inaction, age-old darkness of evil customs, greed, and injustice. It urges all the components of Nature to join the procession of celestial glory of a new day. A daybreak thus provides unexplored vista of new possibilities. So, the title relates itself to the theme and message of the poem and the short and suggestive title is a splendid choice.

2. Discuss, after Longfellow, the activities of the wind in the poem “Daybreak”.

Or, What role does the wind play in announcing the beginning of the day? How is the final couplet different from the rest of the poem?

Ans. H.W. Longfellow in his splendid piece of work “Daybreak” has wonderfully explored the wind as a harbinger of dawn and a new era of regeneration – of reawakening as well. The jolly rush of wind brings with itself the message of duty to all the creatures of Nature. It awakens the world from the nightlong inaction and slumber and announces the prelude of the day. Like Shelly’s West-wind, the wind here too is the symbol of poet’s revolutionary spirit. It prophesies that with the termination of the darkness and social stagnation, a reawakening – the zenith of hopes and aspirations is likely to come. Rising up from the core of sea, the sea-wind asked the mists to give him a passage to blow, the mariners to sail on, the forest to flutter its banners of foliage, the wood-bird to open its wing and sing profusely , the chanticleer to give the clarion call, to cornfields to salute the the coming morn, and the church bell to proclaim the hour of dawn. But while blowing across the graveyard the sea-wind with a sigh feels that the dead souls in graves should not be pestered. It tells the dead souls, “Not yet! in quiet lie”. The poet has therefore enkindled all the components of Nature to join the procession of a celestial glory of a new day.
▪️ The final couplet notes a difference in tone because here the wind does the reverse of the prior action. So when it crosses the cemetery it tones down its gait(pace) to control its sound to sigh for the dead and also tells them to enjoy the eternal sleep in the calmness of the grave as their Day of Judgement hasn’t yet arrived. . It tells them, “Not yet, in quiet lie”.

3. Is there a shift of tone in the final couplet? Why is there a shift?

Or, What Biblical allusion has been referred to in the poem ‘Daybreak’.

Or, ” It crossed the churchyard with a sigh” – Why did it sigh? What did it say while crossing and why?

Ans. H.W. Longfellow in his splendid piece of work “Daybreak” has wonderfully presented the wind as a harbinger of dawn .Rising up from the core of sea the sea-wind delivers the message of a new dawn i.e. a new era to all animate and inanimate components. It incites all to wake up and start afresh. It remains emphatic, vigorous and chivalrous in tone till it shouts through the ‘belfry-tower’ to ‘proclaim the hour’. But finally when it blows across the graveyard, it doesn’t urge the dead to to wake up because they have already completed their mundane duties . Rather it sighs for the departed souls lying in their grave. This shift in tone in the final couplet is strikingly paramount.
▪️The poet has endowed the wind as a sensitive person sharing empathy for all. So when it crosses the cemetery it tones down its gait(pace) to control its sound to sigh for the dead and also tells them to enjoy the eternal sleep in the calmness of the grave. It tells them, “Not yet, in quiet lie”. Here is an allusion to the Biblical doctrine of death and resurrection. According to this Christian belief the dead will come alive from their grave on the Day of Judgement.

4.In the Poem Daybreak, from where did the wind come and when? Whom did it meet? What sound devices did Longfellow use in the Poem?

Ans. In the Poem “Daybreak”, the wind came from the sea at dawn.
▪️ The sea-wind met the mists and the mariners at sea. On land, it visited the forests, the woodbird, the chanticleer, the fields of corns, the belfry-Tower, and the churchyard.
▪️Longfellow weaves out the texture of his poetry with a delicate touch of artistry and creates a sense of fabulous sensation with his deft use of the sound devices. In his poem “Daybreak”, a number of sound devices is used to depict the wind as a messanger of dawn and a new era of regeneration – of reawakening as well. The wind whispers, cries, shouts, sighs and speaks like a human being. The singing of the bird, the crowing of the chanticleer and the ringing of the bell of the belfry tower are all associated with the emergence of the day. Longfellow favours the rhythm and sound devices to make his poem vibrant and lively.
5.Give the central idea of the poem.(v.v.i)
Ans. Longfellow in his poem ‘Daybreak’ tributes to the majesty of dawn and hopes to see a world throbbing with life. He personifies the wind by giving it the human ability to speak. With the advent of the dawn the wind rises out of the sea and crosses on to the land heralding the news of daybreak to all and sundry. It appears as the harbinger of hopes and aspirations. The wind awakens the world from the nightlong slumber and brings the message of duty to all the creatures and phenomenal objects of nature. It urges all to wake up to action. It impels the living world to follow the natural course of their daily life and perform their their respective duties. But the same wind greets the dead buried in the churchyard with a sigh telling them to lie quietly in eternal sleep as they have already completed their mundane duties suggesting that their Day of Judgement has not yet arrived. Thus, the central idea of the poem articulates the advent of a new dawn of renaissance and illumination through the revolutionary spirit of the wind.

6.How is the wind personified in H.W. Longfellow’s ‘Daybreak’?

Ans. H.W. Longfellow in his poem Daybreak has endowed the wind with human attributes. The wind has been presented as a living force. In rhetoric, when inanimate objects (the wind) or abstractions are endowed with human qualities it is called personification. Longfellow presents the splendour of dawn through words of its messanger, the sea-wind. “Daybreak” contains dialogue of the wind and it becomes alive with Longfellow’s forte of using imagery. However, the use of imagery along with sound device also reinforces the personification. The wind whispers, cries, shouts, speaks, touches, and sighs like a human being. Thus, the sea-wind pleads the mists to give him the passage to blow, hails the mariners to commence their voyage, impels the forest to display its leafy branches, touches the wood bird’s folded wing, inovokes the chanticleer to blow his clarion, whispers to the fields of corn to bow and greet the coming morn, and shouts through the belfry tower to ring its bell to proclaim the hour. But while it blows across the churchyard, it shows its empathy that it sighs for the dead and tells them to lie quietly as their time to wake up hasn’t yet arrived. Like a living person the wind can revel in joy and suffer in sorrow. The wind uses human language and different tone to wake up different components of Nature. This is how the poet personifies the wind who wonderfully serves his purpose.

References :
1. WBCHSE Mindscapes XI.
2. Selected Poems(Classics), Longfellow by Penguin Publishers.
3. English Guide, Santra Publication.

Descriptive Questions | Leela’s Friend | XI |

Descriptive Questions | Leela’s Friend | XI |

Prepared by @Sarbadaman Gop

1.Describe the teaching episode between Leela and Sidda.[5]

Or, ” It gave her great joy to play the teacher to Sidda.” – Who is ‘she’ and how did she play the teacher to Sidda. [1+4]

Or, How did Leela try to make Sidda write? What was the result? [3+2] [Annual Exam – 2014] 

Ans. The word ‘she’ refers to Leela. She was the five-year old daughter of Mr. Sivasanker. 

◾At dusk Leela held a class for Sidda. She was ecstatic to play the teacher to Sidda.  She had a box filled with catalogues, illustrated books and stumps of pencils. She made Sidda squat on the floor.Little Leela had just started learning two or three letters of the alphabet and drawing pictures of cat and crow. Sidda was quite illiterate. Being incapable of plying with the pencil he could neither draw a perfect ‘crow’, nor give his ‘B’ a proper shape. Examining his efforts, Leela upbraided him like a real teacher and pitying on him she redoubled her efforts to teach him.Leela doesn’t succumb to Sidda despite his foiled attempts. Sidda was to stick to his seat till his stiff and inflexible wrist would get/ got almost cracked. To get rid of the hard taskmaster he sent her to her mother on the pretext of being called for dinner. Thus, the school hour came to an end. 

2. In any case, we couldn’t have kept a criminal like him in the house.” Who is the speaker? Who is the ‘criminal’ referred to here? What led the speaker to such a comment?  (1+1+3) [Annual Exam XI 2018]

Or, What message is conveyed by Mr. Sivasanker’s final words in the story,” In any case, we couldn’t have a criminal like him in the house.” (5)

Ans. Mr.Sivasanker is the speaker who made this remark at the conclusive portion of the story. 

◾Sidda is the criminal referred to here. 

◾These words of  Mr. Sivasanker unveiled the class division of the society and  immense callousness of the elites to the poor people. Being a member of an elite class in society, Mr. Sivasanker enjoyed power and authority. The persons enjoying authority in society didn’t hesitate to brand a poor innocent person a criminal without any evidence of crime. As Sidda belonged to lowest rung of the social ladder, he became an easy prey to social and economic injustices. He received two meals and a paltry sum of money in return for his dedicated and sincere services. It opened our eyes to the prejudice prevailing in the society. Though it was proved that  Leela’s gold chain was not stolen by Sidda and that it was traced from within his own house , Mr. Sivasanker did neither apologise to Sidda and repent Sidda’s police custody nor intend to reinstall him. Whatever informaton the inspector provided him about Sidda’s past became the cornerstone of the understanding of Mr.Sivasanker. So it stands ironic that Mr. Sivasanker fell short of their judgement and humanity ; yet they criticised Sidda. We feel for Sidda but can do little to diminish his pangs and sufferings.The message is that the so-called ruling class of the society feel no need to sympathise with the neglected, exploited, undervalued and poor section of the society whose members like Sidda often have to face and undergo the shameful treatment at the hands of the  elites. So, we must bring a change in our attitudes and treat them with respect. 

3. Write a note on moon episode in “Leela’s Friend” (5)

Or, ” I have asked it to follow us about.” — Who asked to follow? What was it? Why did the speaker say so? (1+1+3)

Or  “I will show you something nice.” —  Explicate how did he show the nice thing to the person addressed. (5)

Ans.  Sidda asked the moon to follow.

◾It refers to the moon.

◾ In R.K. Narayan’s short story “Leela’s Friend”,the moon episode is an enchanting incident. Leela relishes Sidda’s company supremely. So Sidda has to drop his work to run to Leela whenever she cries, “Sidda, come and play!”. They will play a typical game. And through this game Sidda’s power of imagination elicits not only Leela’s amazement, but also her faith, her confidence in Sidda, and her true companion. Sidda closing his eyes, throws the ball into the sky and when the ball returns Sidda says that the ball has touched the moon. He even shows Leela a bit of trace of the moon sticking to the ball. After keenly examining the ball for the traces  of the moon she claims that she has not seen it. Sidda replies that it must be seen quickly, otherwise it would evaporate. Sidda also persuades Leela that the moon can be touched by standing on a coconut tree. Sidda takes her to different places to instill in him the presence of the moon everywhere. They move near the rose plant, or to the backyard. Sometimes they stopped near the well. From each places Sidda discovered the ubiquitous presence of the moon. Leela is befuddled to see the same moon at different places.Leela subsequently claps and screams in wonder. Sidda declares that he has asked the moon to follow them. Leela becomes very delighted about it and reports it to her mother – “Sidda knows the moon”. This episode is a fine treatment to Leela to explore her imaginative world. 

4. “Sidda vanished into the night.”- Why did Sidda vanish into the night? Narrate what happened after Sidda vanished into the night.

Or, Analyse the missing chain episode and its consequences. 

Ans. Sidda was the servant in the Sivasanker household maintaining most of  their daily chores. One evening Sidda went out to buy sugar and Leela went with him. When they came home Leela’s mother noticed that the gold chain was missing from Leela’s neck. In answer to her mother’s questions Leela couldn’t deliver any credible answer and was slapped by the mother. After a while Mrs.Sivasanker started shouting Sidda. As Sidda came, Leela’s mother threw a glimpse at him and assumed that the fellow already looked eccentric. He was asked about the chain and admonished by her. Sidda blinked and with a drying throat answered that he didn’t know. She mentioned the police and shouted at him. When she went back to the kitchen Sidda vanished into the night. Presumably Sidda anticipated some awful action against him which led him to flee from the house immediately.

     ◾When Leela’s father, Mr.Sivasanker came back home he grew very excited over all these, went to the police station and lodged a complaint. Four days later, a police inspector and a constable brought in Sidda. While he was asked about the chain again, Sidda denied the charge made against him – ” I haven’t taken it.”  Leela stood behind Sidda and supported him. She could not tolerate this separation from Sidda. A lot of injustice was done to him.Leela was in tears. But the Police and her family didn’t pay any heed to Leela. After a few days the mother recovered the chain from the tamarind pot in the kitchen. So it must be placed there by Leela playfully. All came to know their faults but they did neither apologise to Sidda nor consider to reinstate him in the house.

5. ” The police know his haunts” – Who is the speaker? Whose haunts are referred to here and why?

Ans. Mr. Sivasanker is the speaker. 

◾The haunts of Sidda are referred to here. It suggests the secret place where Sidda could keep himself covert for his safety. Actually, in one evening Leela’s gold chain was found missing from Leela’s neck.She surmised Sidda for the theft. Later on when Leela’s mother mentioned  the police and shouted at him, Sidda instantly vanished into the night. Mr. Sivasanker lodged a complaint at the police station. Mr.Sivasanker has already concluded that Sidda might be a criminal and the police would definitely catch hold of him within a short span of time. Sidda had been in jail previously half a dozen times for stealing jewellery from children. Mr. Sivasanker believed that the inspector could be able to identify Sidda by the given description as they knew his haunts. So naturally Sivasanker reflects that the police might arrest him shortly. This was Mr. Sivasanker’s anticipation.

6. How do Mr and Mrs Sivasanker react to Leela’s missing chain? How does Leela herself react? What does this suggest about each of them?

Ans. One evening Mrs. Sivasanker noticed that Leela’s gold chain was missing from her neck. When asked, both Leela and Sidda were unable to give any answer. She slapped angrily Leela as she had neither taken it off nor put in the box. She naturally got enraged and shouted ” Sidda! Sidda!”. She was sure that he had stolen it because he went out to buy sugar and Leela accompanied him. She cast a glance at him and felt he already looked weird when she asked him about the chain. Mrs. Sivasanker then directly charged Sidda with the theft and threatened to report it to police. Panic-stricken, Sidda had instantly disappeared into the night. She was terrified to harbour a villain and such a rough fellow who with his knowledge of the household, might come in at night and loot. It was God’s mercy that Leela hadn’t been killed for the gold chain. When Mr. Sivasanker came home and heard all, he immediately informed the police and lodged a complaint against Sidda.

     ◾Leela’s reaction on the contrary was suggestive of the typical childish reaction. She casually remarked, “I don’t know.” She said that she would not sleep unless Sidda came and told her stories. She didn’t believe that Sidda could steal her chain. Even if he stole she didn’t mind it and said ” Let him, it doesn’t matter. Tell me a story.” She always yearned for Sidda’s company. She even counseled  her mother to stop abusing and worrying Sidda.

   ◾The way Leela’s parents reacted to the missing of gold chain suggests that they are the bourgeois, materialistic elites who cherishes monetary values over the sweet relations. They are too shallow to repost him in their house after discovering that the missing chain has been found in the tamarind pot in their own house. But Leela is a truly innocent child living in her own realm of playfulness and fantasy. Unlike her parents she hardly cares about the pecuniary interest of the missing chain and has firm faith in her fellow human beings. 

7. Briefly explicate the relationship between Sidda and Leela. 

Ans :  Sidda and Leela are two leading characters in R.K. Narayan’s short story “Leela’s Friend”. Sidda belongs to the lowest rung of the social ladder. He is poor and illiterate.He is employed as a servant in Mr. Sivasanker’s house. His job is to wash clothes, tend the garden, chop wood, run some errands and look after Leela. Leela is Mr.Sivasanker’s five-year-old daughter. As Leela is fond of Sidda, she finds in him a true companion of her. In fact it is her affirmation that settles the issue for Mr. Sivasanker to engage Sidda as as a domestic help. Leela gives a cry of joy  at time of seeing Sidda for first time. Sidda plays with Leela, tells her stories, incites her imagination and responds to her whimsical questions. Sidda has to be ready to carry out her commands whenever she summons her to join into the play leaving behind any work that he is assigned to do. It is Sidda’s trick which persuades Leela to belive the ubiquitous presence of the moon from various places. A kind of mutual devotion is explicit in their relation.At bed time, Sidda is to be ready with a story and tells her bewitching stories about animals in jungle, God in heaven and of magicians who could conjure up castles and fill them with little princesses. Through such umpteen ways Sidda clings closer to Leela and it is their relationship which unravels to the readers that they prefer mutual affection and respect  over any pecuniary values which is further demonstrated by Leela’s parents. Sidda was a social outcast and an esay victim. But through their relationship it is informed that he too has human soul. 

References : 1.WBCHSE BLISS Text Book 2. Malgudi Days (Indian Thought Publications)3. Chaya Prakashani English Tutor.

Edited by Sarbadaman Gop.

SAQs from Upon Westminster Bridge.

Class – XI (WBCHSE)

Westminster Bridge

Short Answer Type

1. Which city, according to Wordsworth, is the fairest one?
Ans. According to Wordsworth, the city of London is the fairest.

2. Who was with Wordsworth on his way to France?
Ans. Dorothy Wordsworth, his sister, was with Wordsworth on his way to France.

3. “Earth has not anything to show more fair” – What does the poet mean to say?
Ans. Here the poet means to say that the morning beauty in the city of London surpasses all other excellent sights presented by the earth.

4. “A sight so touching in its majesty.” – Which sight is referred to here?
Ans. The sight of the city of London surrounded by nature, becoming bright by morning Sun rays is referred to here.

5. Who would be ‘dull of soul’?
Ans.The person who is not impressed by the beautiful sight of London appears to the poet ‘dull of soul’.

6. Who, according to the poet, could pass by the captivating beauty of nature as shown by the earth?
Ans. According to the poet, only a dullard could pass by the captivating beauty of natural as shown by the earth.

7. What does the city of London wear like a garment?

Or, What garment did the city wear? [ Annual Exam- 2017]
Ans. The city of London, the poet imagines, wears the beauty of the morning like a garment.

8. What is the majesty of the sight?
Ans. London, clothed in morning rays of the sun is heavenly beautiful to the poet. So it is magestic in its ‘first splendour’ (grandeur or radiance of the morning light) to the poet.

9. What is described as the garment of the city in the poem ” Upon Westminster Bridge” ?
Ans. The beauty of the morning or the first rays of the morning sun on London is described as the garment of the city.

10. What kind of poem is “Upon Westminster Bridge”?
Ans. “Upon Westminster Bridge” is a Petrarchan sonnet.

11. Which things glitter in the smokeless air?
Ans. The ships and towers, domes, theatres, and churches glitter in the smokeless air.

12. Why is the atmosphere ‘silent’ and ‘bare’?
Ans. The atmosphere is ‘silent’ and ‘bare’, noiseless and ‘smokeless’ simply because it is too early in the morning for people or vehicles to move about.

13. Why is the air of London called smokeless?
Ans. Early in the morning the commercial activities of London have not yet started. Factories and vehicles are still in rest (at ease) .So the air is smokeless.

14. How does Wordsworth describe the beauty of the morning? [Annual Exam – 2015,2018]
Ans. In the poem, “Upon Westminster Bridge”, Wordsworth describes the beauty of the morning as silent and bare as there is neither smoke nor din and bustle in the city of London.

15. Why does the poet address God?
Ans. The poet addresses God because he feels joy and wonder while observing the divine beauty and serenity of the city at early morning.

Or, God is invoked/addressed by the poet to express his thankfulness visualising such a divine beauty and profound serenity of London in the early morning.

16. Where is the Westminster Bridge situated? (v.v.i.)
Ans. The Westminster Bridge is situated over the river Thames in London.

17. How are the ships, towers, temples,domes and theatres in the smokeless air?
Ans. The ships, towers, temples,domes and theatres look bright and glittering in the smokeles air.

18. How does the river Thames flow?
Ans. The Thames flows smoothly and quietly at its own sweet will.

19. How does the sun shine on the city of London? (v.v.i)
Ans. The rays of the early sun have never fallen upon valleys or hills so splendidly as they fall upon the city of London.

20. How does the poet feel when he observes the beauty of London?
Ans. The poet feels a profound calmness while relishing the beauty of the city of London in early morning.

21. What particular aspect of the city strikes the poet most in the early morning when he sees the city of London from the Westminster Bridge?
Ans. The city steeped in all-pervading calmness and sweet slumber in early morning strikes the poet most when he sees the city of London from the Westminster Bridge.

22. Why does the poet say that the ‘river glideth at his own sweet will’ ?
Ans. The river glides at its own ‘sweet will’ because it suffers no movement of the boats or ships.

23. What is the feeling that Wordsworth experiences which he has never experienced before? [ Annual Exam-2016]
Ans. The poet never felt such a profound joy and calmness before he experienced this London morning.

24. “Ne’er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!” – When does the poet utter these words?
Ans. The poet utters these words at the presence of the all-pervasive calm and silence over the city of London in the early morning.

25. Which two things of the city attract the poet?
Ans. The sun-lit beauty of the city and its all-pervading silence attract the poet.

26. “… the very houses seem asleep” – What does this imply?
Ans. This implies /suggests that the houses, like human beings, are still asleep.

27. What is ‘mighty heart’ in the poem?
Ans. The city London is compared to a sleeping giant possessing a mighty heart as it is mostly busy a commercial city.

Prepared by Sarbadaman Gop.

References : 1.WBCHSE BLISS Text Book. 2. William Wordsworth, Selected Poems (Penguin Classics). Here is the full pdf of the SAQs of Upon Westminster Bridge.

I hope this will help you in your exams. Building relentlessly a unique realm of English Literature. Kindly let me know in the comment section below what type of answers and summary analysis you need. God bless you all!

Eliot’s Concept of Impersonal poetry and its relation to the sense of Tradition

Eliot’s theory of Impersonal Poetry and it’s relation to its Tradition

[Sarbadaman Gop]
[M.A.,3rd Sem.]

T. S. Eliot was the harbinger of a revolutionary wave of literary criticism that swept over the academic world in the twentieth century and culminated in the postmodern philosophies of Barthes, Derrida, and Foucault. Central to Eliot’s approach was his concept of “impersonal poetry” and, closely related, his attitude justifying “tradition” as an integral part of the process in writing poetry.Impersonal poetry arose as a direct reaction against Romanticism, where the poet saw his poetry as an extension of himself and where, similarly, criticism treated poetry as a personal object. Some of his critical pronucments contained in this essay have far-reaching consequences for the critics of the twentieth century – particularly for the New Critics of USA in the 1940. Eliot’s essay “Tradition and Individual Talent” (a manifesto of Eliot’s critical principles) consists of three parts : first the concept of “Tradition”, then “Theory of Impersonal Poetry”, and finally the conclusion i.e. the death of the author (the empirical author, the author in the biographical sense of the term) and as well as the shift of the focus from the author to the text. John Wain is right when he says :

“In a sense, every piece of literary criticism that he (Eliot) has written from that day to this has has been footnote to the essay.”

Eliot called himself a “classicist in literature”., and this essay contains a full exposition of his classicism.Eliot gives a novel and persuasive interpretation of “tradition” in this essay. First, “tradition” represents a “simultaneous order,” by which Eliot means a historical timelessness – a fusion of past and present. Second, it contains a sense of present temporality. Eliot challenges a common perception that a poet’s greatness and individuality lies in his departure from his predecessors. Rather, Eliot argues that “the most individual parts of his work may be those in which the dead poets,his ancestors, assert their immortality most vigorously”. Eliot also cautions us against taking ‘tradition’ as a mere imitation and adaptation of the ways of our immediate predecessors. ‘Tradition’ must be acquired by those poets who wish to continue as poets after the first effervescence of adolescence and youth is over. Here, tradition cannot be inherited, it has to obtained with painstaking effort. Eliot outlines his concept of ‘tradition‘ in the following words :

” It involves, in the first place, the historical sense, which we may call nearly indispensable to anyone who would continue to be a poet beyond his twenty-fifth year; and the historical sense involves a perception, not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence; the historical sense compels a man to write not merely with his own generation in his bones, but with a feeling that the whole of the literature of Europe from Homer and within it the whole of the literature of his own country has a simultaneous existence and composes a simultaneous order. This historical sense, which is a sense of the timeless as well as of the temporal and of the timeless and of the temporal together,is what makes a writer traditional.”

The historic sense enables us to see a poem not as an isolated and self-contained instance of poetry, but as a link with with similar poems by old poets and as such the culmination of a poetic idea or feeling which has persisted through a poetic tradition. According to Eliot, no author, no text will convey its full meaning in isolation from tradition :

“No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone. His significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists.”

The relation between tradition and the individual talent is a bilateral relationship. If tradition influences the individual poet, the individual poet too influences the tradition and the past procures an ever new meaning because of the because of the contributions made to it by the new poets. Eliot rightly states that “…. the past should be altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past” which means new works of art have to conform to the old ones and at the same time the old works are influenced or altered by their successors. With this discussion, Eliot softly comes to define the process of depersonalisation and its relation to the sense of tradition :

“The progress of an artist is a continual self-sacrifice, a continual extinction of personality.”

The second section of the essay begins with an important statement,”Honest criticism and sensitive appreciation are directed not upon the poet but upon the poetry.” This is a clear departure from biographical criticism, and marks the beginning of ‘textual’ or practical criticism. The emphasis has shifted from the author to the text. After making this significant statement(as quoted above) Eliot goes on to explain his impersonal theory of poetry and examine the relationship between the poem and the poet.

Eliot maintains that a poem or a work of art is an autonomous entity. He seeks to distance the poet from the poem by saying that one should distinguish between the poet who suffers on the poet who creates. He affirms:

“….. the more perfect the artist, the more completely separate in him will be the man who suffers and the mind which creates; the more perfectly will the mind digest and transmute the passions which are its material.”

Eliot uses a chemical reaction as an analogy to illustrate the production of poetry. He compares emotions and feelings to oxygen and sulfur dioxide, while the mind of the poet is “the shred of platinum”. Platinum serves as a catalyst which causes the combination of oxygen and sulfur dioxide. Emotions and feelings exist in all people’s minds, but not all these emotions and feelings can combine to mould a poetry. This production needs a “catalyst”— the mind of the poet.

Sulphur dioxide (Feeling) + Oxygen (Emotion) +Platinum (Mind of Poet) = Sulphurous Acid (Poem) (No trace of Poet’s Personality).

In this view, the poet is a vessel storing emotions and feelings, which remain still until all necessary elements emerge to form a production :

“The poet’s mind is in fact a receptacle for seizing and storing up numberless feelings, phrases, images, which remain there until all the particles which can unite to form a new compound are present together.”

This analogy serves as a clue to Eliot to declare that the best poetry is impersonal.The poem will be more enduring and valuable if it transcends the personality of the poet.Eliot asserts :

” ….. for my meaning is, that the poet has, not a ‘personality’ to express, but a particular medium, which is only a medium and not a personality, in which impressions and experiences combine in peculiar and unexpected ways. Impressions and experiences which are important for the man may take no place in the poetry, and those which become important in the poetry may play quite a negligible part in the man, the personality.”

In this regard, Eliot quotes the example of Keats’ “Ode to the Nightingale ” to distinguish between artistic emotion and personal emotion.

Towards the end of Section II of the essay, Eliot contests Wordsworth’s theory of poetry by saying that ” emotion recollected in tranquility is an inexact formula.” Instead he suggests that,

” Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality.”

Eliot’s prescription of doing away with personality does not mean that poetry is bereft of personality altogether: What he decries is the empirical self of the author but not the implied author.
In the concluding Section III of the essay Eliot says that the poet must escape from his personal emotion and take that emotion ‘which has its life in the poem’ only then,he can achieve impersonality in his art, for ‘the emotion of art is impersonal.’ The most significant utterance in this section is as follows :

“To divert interest from the poet to the poetry is a laudable aim: for it would conduce to a juster estimation of actual poetry, good and bad.”

This Lays the foundation of New Criticism and makes T.S. Eliot the forerunner of the New Critics of USA in 1940s.

Eliot’s classicism and his theory of impersonal poetry unearth their full and complete expression in this essay. As most of his later criticism, both general and practical, is but an enlargement of these two concepts, we would be justified in calling this essay a manifesto of Eliot’s critical creed. We may not agree with him in totality, he may be vague and mystical at places, but there is no denying the peculiar charm and power of his essay. Clive Bell praised Eliot for his, ‘power of phasing’ , and the essay is distinctly outlined with palpable and trenchant phrases.The essay is classical not only in its content, but also in its language. Eliot’s classical passion for formal perfection is reflected in the beauty and almost Shakespearean felicity of expression, of the essay. A.G. George comments,

“Eliot’s theory of impersonality of poetry is the greatest theory on the nature of the poetic process after Wordsworth’s romantic conception of poetry.”

References :

1.T.S. Eliot “Tradition and Individual Talent”2.Editor, T.S. Eliot’ A Collection of Critical essays, Prentice-Hall (1962)3. Gardner, Helen. The Art of T.S. Eliot (1949) 4.Lal, P. (Editor), T.S. Eliot: Home age from India: A commemoration volume of 55 essays 5.Raine, Craig. T.S. Eliot. Oxford University Press (2006) 5.T.S. Eliot “Functions of criticism” 6. 6.Twentieth Century Literary Criticism, Atlantic, Bijay Kumar Das.

Negative Capability

Negative Capability

The celebrated Romantic Poet John Keats introduced this term to describe the quality of selfless receptivity necessary to the true poets as well as the ability to negate their own personalities in order to perceive reality in its myriad complexities.In one of his letters written to his brothers, George and Thomas on 21st December, 1817,he writes :

“I had not a dispute, but a disquisition, with Dilke upon various subjects;several things dove-tailed in my mind, and at once it struck me what quality went to form a man of achievement, especially in literature,and which Shakespeare possessed so enormously – I mean Negative Capability, that is, when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason.” Keats contrasted to this quality the writing of Coleridge, who “would let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude .. . from being incapable of remaining content with half knowledge,” and went on to express the general principle “that with a great poet the sense of beauty overcomes every other consideration, or rather obliterates all consideration.” Besides criticising Coleridge, Keats in later letters complains of the ‘egotistical’ and philosophical bias of Wordsworth’s poetry. Therefore, to Keats, insight into beauty and intuitive awareness are the most important things than that of rational analysis. In the concluding lines of his Ode On a Grecian Urn, Keats summarised part of his philosophy thus :

‘Beauty is truth, truth beauty,’ – that is all

Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.

By negative capability, then, Keats seems to have meant a poetic capacity to efface one’s own mental identity by immersing it sympathetically and spontaneously within the subject described, as Shakespeare was thought to have done. Negative Capability is not merely the power to dwell comfortably in mystery, but the thirst, the need, for mystery! It is what water means to a fish, soil to a tree, and sunlight to a seed.Without this Negative Capability, without mystery, the fish would die, the tree could not stand, and seed can never open. Negative Capability is life :

“Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,

Of all the unhealthy and o’er-darkn’d ways

Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all,

Some shape of beauty moves away the pall

From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon,

Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon.”

– (A Thing of Beauty, Endymion)

However,the elusive term has entered critical circulation and has accumulated a large body of commentary. When conjoined with observations in other letters by Keats, “negative capability” can be taken (1) to characterize an impersonal, or objective, author who maintains aesthetic distance, as opposed to a subjective author who is personally involved with the characters and actions represented in a work of literature, and as opposed also to an author who uses a literary work to present and to make persuasive his or her personal beliefs; and (2) to suggest that, when embodied in a beautiful artistic form, the literary subject matter, concepts, and characters are not subject to the ordinary standards of evidence, truth, and morality, as we apply these standards in the course of our everyday experience.

Edited by Sarbadaman Gop


1. Abrams, M.H.. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New Delhi: Cengage

Learning, 2009. Print

2. Bate, Walter Jackson. Ed. A Collection of Critical Essays. New Jersey:

Prentice-Hall, 1964.

3. Keats, John. 1899. The complete Poetical Works and letters of John Keats.

4.The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (3 ed.) by Chris Baldick.

J. A. Cuddon, The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory: Fifth Edition

Download Link 🔗 for PDf version:

Karma by Khushwant Singh (XI)

1. Bring out the appropriateness of the title of the story “Karma” by Khushwant Singh.

Ans: According to Hindu scriptures, the word “Karma” signifies a moral judgement that according to your ‘Karma’ i.e. action you will get the prize. This concept gives birth to the well known adage “As you sow, so you reap”. The present story “Karma” narrates the unexpected predicament that the anglicised, highbrow, and tickety-boo Sir Mohan Lal suddenly finds himself in. Khushwant Singh has portrayed the character of Sir Mohan Lal ironically.
His rodomontade is his association with Oxford colleges and its dons, his sojourn in England for five years, rugby matches, mixed doubles, boat-races and nights spent with Picadally harlots. He denigrates everything that is Indian. Even his wife, simple native Lachmi is found to be an object of derision and odium to him as she is unable to fit into his idea of a fashionable wife. He used her only for satisfying his carnal pleasure. In a train journey, where his wife travelled in an ordinary compartment, he had the first class ticket with the hope of good conversation with some British. He was ready to show his foreign culture by his dress, Balliol tie, Times magazine, drinking whisky, foreign cigarettes etc. Seeing two British soldiers he was elated and preparing to welcome them. But to his utter surprise, calling him a ‘nigger’ they not only ill treated him but also threw him out of the train compartment along with his bag and baggages. On the otherhand, the simple and humble Indian lifestyle has gifted Lachmi a comfortable journey without any hindrance in an interclaas Zenana compartment. He finally reached the Christian realisation that mere imitation yielded no fruit. The British whom he admired most became the cause of his nemesis. So, the title stands fully justified marking the theme of the story.

2. ” I am only a native woman” – Who said this? To whom was it said? Describe the speaker’s character in the light of the above comment.

Ans : In the short story “Karma” written by Khushwant Singh, Lachmi, the wife of Sir Mohan Lal said this.

➡️ It was said to the railway coolie who carried her steel trunk and moved down the platform.

➡️ Lachmi is portrayed as a native Indian woman, typically an Indian housewife who usually talks in her native Hindustani language.The character of Lachmi betrays sharp polarity with that of Sir Mohan Lal. By the description of the author, it is clear that she is in her middle forties, fat, fair and short. She wears a dirty white sari with a red border. She is found sitting on a small grey steel trunk and fanning herself with a newspaper. Like most Indian woman, she loves to have a diamond nose ring on one side of her nose and several gold bangles on her arms. She is talkative and frankly speaks with the coolie. She chews betel leaves, eats chapattis with mango pickle. The way she mops her hand in her saree and emits loud belches, manifest her insouciance towards artificial etiquette. Unlike her husband she is not proud of her class. She prefers to travel in interclass Zenana compartment. Her address to the coolie as ‘brother’ and her meek obedience to her husband highlights her naivety. Her husband only meets her in the nocturnal hours only to satisfy his carnal pleasure.But she is still childless. She is not allowed to meet her poor, illiterate relatives. She, however, had no grudge against her husband. She is rather very happy and content with her situation. Finally her sending a jet of red dribble flying across like a dart concludes her apathy for western mannerism as well as so-called sophistication. On top of all she is devoid of any identity crisis unlike her husband. The incarnation of very naturalness and simplicity is a perfect foil to her husband.

Q.3. Narrate the incident in the compartment of Sir Mohan Lal when two English soldiers entered there.

Or, Narrate briefly the man-handling and humiliation of Sir Mohan Lal by two junior English soldiers. [WBCHSE Sample Question]

Or, How did Sir Mohan feel when he saw two Englishmen coming towards his coupe. [WBCHSE XI-2014]

Ans: In the story “Karma” by Khushwant Singh, while the bearer informed Sir Mohan Lal about the installation of the luggage in a first class coupe next to the engine, Sir Mohan Lal entered his reserved compartment calmly with his studied gait. Finding the compartment totally vacant, he was disheartened because he was eagerly waiting for some Englishmen to be his fellow passangers. His face lit up as he came to the sight of Bill and Jim, two English soldiers trudging along and looking for seats. For their accommodation in the same coupe, he even mediated to consult with the guard, if occasion demanded. One of the soldiers found vacant seats in that coupe and called the other. Entering into the compartment, noticing Mr. Lal, one called the other to make him out of the compartment calling him a ‘nigger’ meaning negro or black man. Mohan Lal became astounded and angered due to this derogatory remarks. He mildly protested maintaining his artistic decorum. The soldiers paused at first on hearing him speak English in Oxford accent, but out of their master like pride and racism they threw Sir Mohan’s suitcase, thermos flask, bedding and ‘The Times ‘ — in which he took so much pride. Being livid with rage, he finally threatened to have them arrested. This made the soldiers violent. Jim struck him flat on the face and with the whistle of the train, they flung him out of the train to the platform. He tripped on his bedding and landed on the suitcase, dumbfounded, being humiliated and disillusioned beyond recognition.

The Eyes Have It by Ruskin Bond

Q.1. ” I was becoming quite daring, but it was a safe remark” – Who is the speaker? Why was the speaker becoming quite daring? What made the remark safe? [1+3+2=6]

Ans : The speaker is the narrator of the story “The Eyes Have It”.

◼️ The speaker was becoming quite daring to know about the looks of the girl. The narrator was quite impressed with the girl’s voice which was likened to the sparkling of a mountainous stream. As the narrator was blind his eyes were sensitive only to light and darkness. There was no way to discover her appearance. At this point dejection haunts the narrator. Besides to praise an unknown girl openly might be considered daring.

◼️ What made the remark safe could be analysed in two ways.

Firstly, the remark was safe because few girls could resist from being flattered.

Secondly, the narrator called it a safe remark as he thought that she would not ask further questions that would reveal his blindness.

The Eyes Have It by Ruskin Bond

Q.1. “She would forget our brief encounter” – Who said this and about whom? What is the ‘brief encounter’ referred to here? Why did the speaker think this?

Ans: The sightless narrator in Ruskin Bond’s marvellous short story “The Eyes Have It” said this about the blind girl who had been his co-passenger during the train journey from Rohana to Saharanpur.

◼️ The ‘brief encounter’ referred to here is the short meeting between the blind narrator and the girl passenger from Rohana to Saharanpur. Though both of them were travelling in the same compartment, their destination is different. While narrator was going to Mussoorie, the blind girl had to alight at Saharanpur. During this short journey, the narrator talked with her about so many things for a while and became inquisitive about her looks, especially her hair whether it was in bun or plaited.

◼️ The narrator thought this because he had probably conjectured that such ordinary meeting with strangers during journeys didn’t leave much impressionable impact on people’s minds.

The Eyes Have It

Q. 1. “Oh, how lucky you are” – Who said this? Who was considered lucky and why? How did the person react to the above remark?

Or, How did the narrator and the girl reminisce about the scenic beauty of Mussoorie?

Or, Describe the landscape of Mussorie in October.

Ans: The girl whom the narrator of Ruskin Bond’s short story “The Eyes Have It” met on the train said it.

◼️ The girl considered the narrator to be ‘lucky’. She liked Mussoorie, especially in october. She came to know that the narrator was going to Dehra and then to Mussoorie, her favourite place. More than that it was then October, the right time for one to have a ball (enjoy greatly) at the charming, panoramic setting of the hilly resort.

◼️The girl’s remark stirred the narrator’s imagination. Calling on his memories the narrator agreed that October was the best time to visit the hills. At that time the hills are adorned with wild dahlias and the warmth of the sun turns both congenial and enjoyable.Sipping or quaffing brandy in front of a logfire at night is also quite relaxing. The roads are tranquil and lonely as by that time most of the tourists have already left. Memories of this scenic beauty probably made both of them nostalgic and reflective.